M.H ABRAMS’ LITERARY THEORIES IN JANE AUSTEN’S EMMA
Literary theory is one of the significant literature aspects that must be understood well by the researchers in conducting the analysis of literary works. This research aims to analyze what literary theories and approaches that can be applied in Jane Austen’s works, which is one of her novels entitled Emma. This novel does indeed succeed, loved by the reader until this age, because the issue or social phenomena reflected by Jane Austen was excellent, the portrayal of the characters are universally human, and the moral values remains toward the behaviors and feelings that represented very well by Jane Austen as the author. This research employed descriptive qualitative method and in this research, the researcher delivered the types of literary approaches by M.H Abrams, such as ‘ Expressive Theory’, Objective Theory’, ‘Mimetic Theory’, and ‘Pragmatic Theory’; in order to see the connection of the existence of literature and society in this novel written by Jane Austen. The data consist of both primary data and supporting data. The primary data were mainly from Austen’s novels entitled Emma (1816). The supporting data were obtained from the reference books, journals, articles that related to the research. The research shows that all types of the Abram’s literary theories could be applied in analyzing Austen’s Emma by determining the issues or topics which must be reflected by the author; and the research also shows in getting the connection of the existence of literature and society, the expressive and mimetic theories are significantly conducted by seeing the relationship between author’s biography and experience of life toward the works they created (expressive) and what social phenomena reflected in a society (mimetic).